15 February 2022Abstract: Obesity and metabolic dysfunction are on the rise in the United States. Hyperinsulinemia, frequently seen in these conditions, correlates with an increased risk of development and mortality from estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer. Expression of components of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family of proteins promote cancer cell growth in vitro, link to shorter progression-free survival, and is associates with an increased risk of metastatic disease and death in breast cancer patients.

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